First Person Accounts
as written by American Indian Students
at Hampton Institute, 1878-1923

Compiled and edited by Jon L. Brudvig, Ph.D. ©1994 and 1996 All rights reserved.

Section Six


Jesse Hill, or Quiyawakgon, was a Tonawanda Seneca from New York who came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in September 1892 to study agriculture. After leaving Hampton in February 1899, Jesse worked on a railroad for a short time and traveled with a brass band. Later, he settled in western New York and operated his own farm. Jesse was instrumental in organizing the Tonawanda Indian Agricultural Organization in 1920.


A great many the white people think that all the Indians are way out West on the reservations, or else they think that the Indians in the East are like those half-breed Indians they see in the summer selling baskets.

They think this because they never see the real Indians. The real Indians don't like to mix up with the white people, so they stay at home and keep out of sight.

I belong to that kind of Indians and I like to stay at home and keep out of sight myself, but I can't do it. I have to come out before you and tell you about them, my people, who can't speak for themselves. I belong to what is called the Seneca band of Iroquois Indians in New York State, those that you call pagan, though they are not pagan, for they do not worship idols, but the true God, the God that we call the Great Spirit, just a different name but the same God.

Sometimes when I think of the old Indian religion that I learned when I was a little boy, and then think of the religion I have learned since, I get all mixed up. Each one is good but it seems to me the old Indians are more earnest in their religion because they believe it with their whole heart and they are continually sacrificing themselves for it. The words of their prayers are very beautiful. I often think of them, but many things about the old way I don't like. I do not like their old way of worshiping by dancing and the many superstitions that they have. The old religion does not believe in education. It says if a young man gets education he breaks the law of the Great Spirit. One thing, they don't understand what real education is and that is why they talk that way. They have seen too many educated people who are not honest and so they say that if a young man gets education he is smart to cheat them, that he will love fire water better than his father and mother.

They think the Great Spirit gave us this country and the white people belong in another country. They say he meant the white people and the Indians to be kept separate. He wanted the Indians to be skillful hunters and the white man to work. He did not want the Whites and the Indians to marry.

As for myself, my parents were pagans and did not believe in education. They never said anything to me when I was a small boy about school, but they encouraged me to work for a living. I did work and succeeded in earning a small house and lot when I was about fifteen years old. I could not speak any English and I could not do any business with white people so I decided I wanted to get education. Then my mother died and after that I was left alone. Then I said to myself I would go off and get an education without asking any of my other relations.

One day a Hampton teacher came to my reservation. I talked to her and after a while came away with her. That was little over four years ago. Since then I have learned many things. Before I came, I saw my life with ignorant eyes. Now I see it with eyes a little educated. I still love my people but I see they are making mistakes.

I have been at home now three summers. When I went home, I told the old people they are foolish, and that the right kind of education will not make their children forget them, but will make them better in every way. They see that what education I have does not make me forget them, but helps me with them and with the Whites too, and so some of them believe what I say.

In the old hunting days the Indians were strong and healthy, but now they live in small cabins and do not know how to take care of themselves. They do not understand hygiene and so the people are dying. The Great Spirit loves his people and he does not like to see them suffer because they don't know the whiteman's way, so he takes them to himself. Every summer when I go home, I talk to the boys and girls and a great many have gone away to school. About fifty boys and girls have gone from my own reservation now. When they all return home, things ought to be very different there, and the next generation will be better.

Since my people cannot hunt anymore, they like to raise crops better than anything else. I would like to be a farmer myself and this year I am studying agriculture at Hampton. When I finish, I shall go back to my own people and do the best I can to set them a good example in farming and living according to the best way I have learned.


First, I would like to tell you about my Indian tribes in State of New York. There are six different tribes that number about 5,000. More than 100 years ago, these tribes were almost constantly at war among themselves and with others. A great many Indian chiefs and warriors were killed in those days. When the Chief or head man of the tribe called all his best warriors to meet in a certain place which he had chosen, they all sat in a circle on the bare ground. The head man spoke to them and encouraged them to do their best in the battle and then selected a few of his men to give a war dance while he sang by himself, sitting inside the circle. At the time of Hiawatha, these tribes were united into a league called by the Whites, Iroquois; but they called themselves the Six Nations. These powerful nations once possessed the soil of the entire State of New York. My forefathers sold that great portion of land to the Whites. I was born on the Tonawanda Reservation in the western part of New York State. There are about 600 Indians with over 7,000 acres of land. On this reservation there are three churches and three schoolhouses, two of which are taught by white women and the other by an Indian girl, who graduated from Hampton in 1895.

The Indians are divided into two parties, the Christian and the Pagan. I live among the Pagan. The Pagans believe that there is one great spirit, maker and ruler of the universe. They have a Green Corn Dance once a year. It is held in the council house late in the fall when the people all gather up their crops. They gather up the different kinds of food. This food is cooked to give thanks to the Great Spirit for the crops that they have gathered. The fire is outside where the food is cooked while the dances are going on inside. After the dance is all over, the food is distributed to all who are present. When I was home last summer my uncle used to come over to see me every little while. He is one of the elder chiefs of the Tonawanda band of Senecas and is very anxious to have me to take his place to become a chief, but I was not willing. He asked me several times and I made many excuses. I told him that I was not fit to be a chief, I don't understand the duties, I would be of no use at all. Other Chiefs did the same. They told me they would like to have me as a member of the council to act as the clerk. The people did not allow a man to be come a chief until he is over middle-age and he must also be a good counselor and an educated man. They think I am well enough educated and are going to make me a young chief.

When I first came to Hampton four years ago I could not speak English. I could only say "yes" and "no". I commenced my study from the lowest class. Every year I have gained, step by step. My friends, I am thankful that I struck such a grand opportunity to get an education and I have made up my mind to learn all I can. When I go away from Hampton I shall go back to my own people and help them in their struggles. They need education and to know more about farming. They like to raise the crops better than anything else. I would like to be a farmer myself. This year I am studying agriculture at Hampton. When I finish this trade, as I said before, I shall go back to my own people and teach them more about farming and I will do my best to uplift them because I love my people. I would like to see them educated Christian men and women. *Note: Manuscript was typed on the back of a letter dated 1897.


Victor Manuel, a full blood Pima Indian from Casa Blanca, Arizona, entered Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in December 1906 following his graduation from the Phoenix Indian School. He was highly regarded by the faculty of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and was recommended by them to fill the position of salesman for the Indian Exhibit at the Lake Mohonk Mountain House, in Ulster County, New York while still a student.

After graduating in 1911, Victor continued his education at Eastman College in Poughkeepsie, New York. Manuel to Arizona in 1916 and found work as a printer. He later became a union president, a member of the Arizona State Militia Band, and an American Indian Commissioner of the Presbyterian Church.

Founders Day-1910

I have been asked to say a few words to you about my people. Out in the southwestern part of our country in the territory of Arizona, otherwise known as the "Land of Sunshine," there is a tribe of Indians known today as the Pimas. This name came to us in a curious way. Early in the 17th century a Spanish priest discovered us and finding us so much more hospitable than the warlike Apaches, he spent some time among us as a friend. Later he went back to Mexico and got together a small military force and returned with the hope of finding gold. Like many other explorers, they doubtlessly believed the report that the simple natives wore the costliest gems unconscious of their value, and that the rivers sparkled with gold. At any rate, in their search for treasure they asked many questions - too many and so the Indians began to answer "pimatee" (I don't understand), "pimatee" (I don't know). The Spaniards caught a part of this word and so called us the Pimas. Our real name is Aatum Kimolt, People of the River, because our abode as far as history and tradition can go, has always been in the valley of the Gila River. Here we have lived, holding to the belief of our ancestors that we were created and placed in this very spot. This tradition has come down from one generation to another and hence we have come to love our homeland, and yes, to consider it sacred soil. None but the Pima knows the history of the ancient ruins that tower here and there in our land, the most noted of which is the Casa Grande ruins that the government is at present trying to preserve.

The Pima was a tiller of the soil before the first pale face discovered this country. Could the dear old Gila River speak to you it would tell you that while other tribes took to the warpath, the Pimas took to their farms. It would tell you how in those old days they raised their own cotton and made their own clothing; how they planted the reeds to make the decorated baskets now known all over the country as the work of "native" artists; and how they dug clay and made the jars that are found in museums of many countries. It would tell you, too, of the years when the people of the Gila Valley gave food and shelter to hundreds of pioneers on their way to California. Historians speak of this with affection, but the rest of the white people have forgotten.

From the beginning, the Pima has never opposed civilization or Christianity, although at first he little knew what it would mean to him. The Gila River, which for generations past gave greenness to his fields and refreshed his weary feet, now lies a stream of sand, and the farm which made him a self-supporting man since the beginning, now lies idle for seasons at a time waiting for the heavy rains that are now the only means by which he can raise a crop.

Twenty years ago the white people built a dam across our Gila River and drew away from us all of its precious water. For as many years, we have been trying to get back what has been ours for untold generations, but so far we have not succeeded. Yet amid privations and untold sufferings, the Pima still keeps his abode on the banks of the Gila hoping some day to see the life giving water flow again through his native valley.

It is often said that the Indian is an unappreciative race. He may not always express his appreciation, but I think he is ready to take the advantages offered him especially by those he has learned to trust. Forty years ago, a good man came to live and teach among us. Today, every member of my tribe belongs to some church and every child of suitable age is in school. Hence a new name has been given us that of the "Christian Tribe of the Southwest".

Better opportunities in the present generation make the future of the Redman hopeful -- the day when he shall stand as a man among men.


Joseph came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Agency in September 1898 from his home at Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. He graduated from Hampton in 1900 and returned home where he found employment as a clerk and a trading store mamager. Joseph's student file also notes that he became a successful stockraiser.

Independence Day 1900

Fellow students, teachers of Hampton Institute, friends and well wishers, we extend to you all a most hearty welcome, and to you gentlemen who have made it possible, in the past, for us to commemorate this anniversary of the signing of the Dawes Bill which conferred upon the Indians the right to U. S. citizenship. And it is our earnest wish that many other anniversaries of this day may be observed here.

The time is not far distant when we shall put to practice our rights and duties as American citizens and no where else except here in the East can we prepare ourselves for these great political privileges. We shall feebly endeavor to show you today what has been done through the agency of Hampton and what our aims are for the future of the Indians.

"The Hampton Idea And What It Means To The Indian"

The idea for which Hampton is striving can not be comprehended in a few minutes' talk, but the presentation of some of the principles on which this institution was founded and to which it still adheres and what has already been accomplished may in general give you a fair knowledge of what I wish to present.

When General Armstrong founded this school for the Negro and the Indian it was his idea not merely to make students but men and women, to build up character and fit teachers and leaders. In 1878 the first Indians, 17 in number, were brought to this school from Florida. Since then the number has been increased to 130 (?). And since then the standard of the Academic department has been raised each year and this means an increase of exertion on our part in proportion to our advance in civilization.

The Indian, though not yet through his transition period, already sees many of the opportunities and obligations forced upon him by the white man. It is right here in the East that he learns to trust the white man. This matter of distrust has been one of the principal drawbacks in the Indian's progress, but it is being overcome by our many friends of the government and the missions.

In an address of his, General Armstrong said, "I regard the idea of a mission in the mind of an Indian, Negro, or any youth as a directive and helpful force of the greatest value in the formation of character."

In the relation of Hampton to the Indian, its purpose is to arouse his faculties from that state of lethargy into which they have been reduced by circumstances. The Indian of today does not walk with that same exalted step of his better days; the blank expressionless countenance speaks for itself better than words, his utter resignation for any fate. He no longer possesses that former ambition to be the foremost of his tribe. Enervated by the reservation system of government in fulfillment of treaties is providing him with the necessities of life, he does not see why he should exert himself unnecessarily. I do not wish to be understood that the reservation itself is undesirable, but the prevalent system of administration in some of the western reserves could be, and we sincerely hope, will soon be corrected. You people of the East know very little of the existing corrupt conditions in the management of some Indian agencies, but limited time prevents me from citing instances.

The majority of Hampton's returned students have at this school been instilled with the idea that they have a mission for the correction of conditions at their homes and are doing excellent work toward it; but their chief objective has been to inspire their people to a higher life and to strive for an equal footing with the white man.

And in connection with this idea in view, Hampton has always considered labor as a moral and an educative force. While its pecuniary return to students is important, and the acquired skill equivalent to a working capital, the outcome of it in manly and womanly quality is in the long run perhaps the most important of all. A complete manhood is what she aims for.

The higher idea of labor is by no one so well expressed as by Channing in a lecture in which he spoke of "Labor as a school of benevolence as well as justice." He said, "A man, to support himself, must serve others. He must do or produce something for their comfort or gratification. This is one of the beautiful ordinations of Providence that to get a living a man must be useful." Now, this usefulness ought to be an end in his labor as truly as to earn his living. He ought to think of the benefit of those he works for as well as of his own; and in so doing, in desiring amidst his sweat and toil to serve others as well as himself, he is exercising and growing in benevolence as truly as if he were distributing bounty with a large hand to the poor.

Then Hampton believes not only in the education of the head and the hands but also the heart. It is decidedly undenominational, but seriously regards the moral and the religious life of the student as the essential points in his nature to be developed. I may say without exaggeration that no student is as fare is as familiar with the sacred book and its teachings or whose soul's welfare is as earnestly sought after, as the students of this institution. With such training as is given here, the returned student is enable to influence the many pagans to the light by his living as well as by his words.

The time has gone by when the Indian accepted religion for the fear of damnation, pestilence, or any misfortune. The novelty of accepting Christianity for the name of Christian has worn off so that the Indian of today, in accepting the truth, does so deliberately if properly influenced for the good.

The coming century will open a new life for the Indian. The average Indian, though he may have very little education or none, is nevertheless now familiar with the use of the various implements and tools of the common industries, and with the aid of those who are being educated, brighter prospects are awaiting us. So let us take heart and apply ourselves with greater earnestness for the preparation of our mission.


Reuben Williams was a full-blooded Tuscarora from Lewiston, New York. He came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute after nine years' training in Indian Government Schools. He completed the carpentry course in 1914 and graduated with an academic diploma the following year. The faculty considered him to be a thoroughly reliable young man, well fitted for usefulness in the Indian Service. Reuben worked as a carpenter until his death on October 11, 1923.

January 1, 1915

I, as a representative of the aboriginal race of America, extend to you of African descent most hearty congratulations upon your great achievements and progress since your Emancipation. No race has excelled in time the Negro's progress from barbarism to civilization. I congratulate your many great leaders who have fought so hard to bring about peace and harmony between races.

We of both races are to attain a worthy destiny; to right the wrongs and abolish prejudice and ostracism. Our leaders have solved our problems to some extent and opened the way for us. Shall we stop there, give away to evil and reject our duties? No! Let us, like men, fight on with ceaseless determination. We are to pave the way for future generations, so let us perform our duties faithfully and with vigor. The burden of progress rests upon us, the more advanced and fortunate members.

The world is in constant progress and we must not allow ourselves to be left behind. We must advance with it until we are at the same elevation as our white brethren. The Negro has long been looked upon as a despised race of no importance. Your rapid progress has done away with that opinion and a different view is moulding. By equal opportunities all races are shoulder to shoulder in all phrases of life. The increasing ability of self-reliance should then be recognized as one of the many factors in the race problem solution. Since no race moves as a single body, there must exist cooperation of individuals and of races.

The Negro race of America as a whole, has had some advantages over the Indian. He has always mingled with white men while the Indian has been apart on reservations. He early accepted the white man's customs of living, while the Indian remained uncivilized. The Negro even before his Emancipation knew the value of education and strove to attain it, while the Indian did not want education. He thought he could live on in aboriginal customs. He first tried to protect his happy hunting possessions. Failing, he fled for refuge into remote districts. It was only by compulsion and starvation that he-has finally given education and the value of industry was impressed upon his mind. In 1863, the Negro was thrown upon his own resources and learned to work to exist. The average uneducated Indian has no special trade and his labor is of little or no value.

The introduction of the so-called firewater into the Indian homes created the greatest evil of the race. Before the Indian came in contact with it he roamed the wide plains and mountains in peace. He was strong, healthy and with a clear mind. Afterward he became weak, helpless and could not walk erect. In 1830 Handsome Lake, organized what is known as the Six Nations Temperance League. This is said to be the oldest temperance society in America and is doing good work among the Iroquois of New York. Among most of the tribes in the United States are temperance societies fighting against the evil which has caused such a great downfall. But we are now entering into a new era. It is useless to brood over past grievances. The Indian shall soon forget the injustice of the white man in robbing him of his lands. He no longer speaks through interpreters. He has shown his ability. From planting a few grains of corn with a crooked stick he has changed to scientific farming and learned rotation of crops. By manual labor he has changed from a wild, lazy, lawless, treacherous man to a law-abiding, industrious and thrifty christian citizen. He has received the Gospel and learned the ways of life.

We, who are here, surely believe that Hampton has what we need. The Indian race needs leaders of strong character to face the evils and hardships to which former leaders have yielded and fallen. Since the withdrawal of the appropriation by the government, we have grown strong. We have learned the value of things and realize the needs of our people and the weight of our burden. Better characters have been formed and a desire of service to our fellow man has been aroused. We are now conscious of the fact that industry is at the top of human virtues. We feel with Hampton's training we can go to our humble homes and live lives of service and brotherly love to our fellow man. We shall never forget the days we spent here but will class them as the best days of our lives.


Alonzo Lee came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute from the Cherokee Agency in Cherokee, North Carolina. Although he did not complete his senior year he was able to find good employment as a carpenter after leaving the school. In 1910, Alonzo worked as a carpenter in Irving, New York, and owned a nice seven-room house. His wife, Elenore Seneca, was a Seneca Indian who also attended Hampton Institute. Alonzo later deserted his first wife and family. Apparently, he eloped with his sister-in-law, Bernedena Seneca, a Hampton alumna.

Indian Day 1899

In 1835, the U. S. sent Gen. Scott to convey the Cherokee Nation west of the Mississippi River. Two thousand of these Indians refused to leave their home. They were forced to start, but escaped from the soldiers one night and fled to the mountains where they stayed until they were permitted to remain. They had left their tribe and were no more a part of that great nation. Thus they became the Eastern Band of Cherokees who were admitted as citizens of North Carolina in 1838.

These people are often spoken of as being the disloyal part of the Cherokee Nation because they would not share the fate of their brothers, but who can dishonor them for love of home. Men of every race and of every age since the birth of Adam have been ready to fight, or even die, to defend their homes. It is human nature to love the place where you are born and brought up.

The land these Indians own was bought by them from the citizens of North Carolina. The reservation contains 80,000 acres laying in the beautiful valley of the Oconalufey River. The soil is fertile and is cultivated to the summit of the hills.

The chief occupation of these Indians is agriculture including stock raising and gardening. Some of them make good baskets while others manufacture fine pottery. They raise and sell to the surrounding towns corn, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes and most all kinds of vegetables.

They are peaceable law abiding citizens and are anxious to improve their condition in every good and prosperous way. They work for their white brothers and are considered honest men in all their transactions. I once heard a tax collector say that if the white men would pay their taxes as promptly as the Indians he wouldn't have any trouble to get tax money. When they know it is their duty to do a thing they go ahead and do it.

I came to this school in 1894 and did not get an opportunity to go back until last Christmas. Four years, I am glad to say, have brought several changes for the best. They (the Indians) are making progress in spite of the many difficulties they come in contact with.

Better houses are being built. Those little log cabins are not so comfortable as a framed house with glass windows in it. The farms are better cared for, cultivated to larger and finer crops, barns are made to shelter grain as well as live stock.

Church is better attended and those who claim to be Christians seem anxious to hear the word of God. I noticed, too, that Christmas was kept by Christian people as a holy day.

If it wasn't for one thing, the brightest days would be dawning on the hill tops of North Carolina. But that one curse, whiskey, will stop progress in any race. The Indians are noted for their aptitude for strong drink and down there it is a great temptation. A government still on one side and a half dozen moonshiners on the other make it as easy to get a drink of whiskey as a glass of ice water here. If this liquor business isn't stopped it will prove disastrous to the red man of North Carolina. Those Indians are getting their education from Uncle Sam and they are also getting their whiskey from him. Yes, he is holding them up by the right hand and at the same time allowing his devil to pull them down.

They have a few men with purposes as true as steel, but, oh, they need an army of such men and ...(women?) who will stand for justice and for God.

Indian Day 1900

Necessity is the Master of us all and therefore one thing needful among the Indians is better farming. The Indians have land and now they want to know how to cultivate it to get larger crops.

The farms the Indians own in North Carolina as a general thing are rough and hilly, but they manage to make an honest living. But if they knew the best method of farming they would get more from the small land with less work.

Four boys came here from that part of the country in 1895 and they stayed here about three years. The progress they made in academics is not worthy of note, but the ideas they obtained from the Industrial Department have enabled them to start right. They have built homes and are setting an example for their people in the first and most essential of human pursuits.

I am not arguing that every Indian should be a farmer. Other vocations are useful and necessary and many may pursue them with advantage to themselves and others.

1892-1895; 1897-1900

John Wizi was a full blooded Sioux from the Crow Creek Agency in South Dakota. His training at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was interrupted in 1895 by the illness of parents. His father was a Crow Creek chief, who encouraged the education of American Indian children. Wizi returned to Hampton in 1897 and remained another three years until leaving in 1900 to attend the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

After his return home, John found employment as an agency interpreter, carpenter, and clerk. By all accounts he was doing well when he met an untimely death in August 1906.


As a representative of the brave Sioux tribe. I have the pleasure of making a few remarks before you today (about) the race which I am proud to represent, and I have been left by my friends alone before you. The Sioux tribe is known as the great warriors or fighters. Today some still are in full dress like in the dark days which have passed. Now these olden times and the garments which they wear in this present age do not mean anything to most of us now. We shall pass over and direct our attention to the present comforts and those future hopes which are dear to us. What we particularly want or need now is education. About twenty-two years ago Gen. Armstrong went to the western regions to get Indians to come East to get knowledge and intelligence and education. Visiting the different tribes, he went to Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota which is at my home. At that time my father was the Chief of the tribe. Then the Sioux are divided into many bands and each has its own chief. In those days the Indians lived in tepees. They had no log or frame houses then. He wanted to follow the white man's way before this and wanted the boys and girls to go to school. He sent his sister and two of his younger brothers, and a cousin to come to school with Gen. Armstrong.

After these students have three years in the East, they returned with much progress in education and joy. Their parents were glad to see what these students had learned and done and they were a great help to them. Father was very much pleased with what my sister had learned, her habits and manners.

Very soon after, the parents of these students were given lumber to build frame houses to live in. More boys and girls came East for the same reason. Some of these returned students, the boys worked as carpenters, blacksmiths, tinsmiths and one is now still teaching at a Mission School at home. He owns land, stock and carries on a farm, and is trying to help the Indians. Since the last twenty-two years, there has been a great change.

Many have taken the courses in some good schools in the East not only in using their heads and books, but also in the hands for tools as workmen. There has been no magic wand to transform the Indian in an hour. And yet when we look back, the change has already been great. The Sioux, war-like roamers of the wilderness, seem to have learned, in part, the arts of peace. Wigwams and wild forests, in many instances, have been changed for happy homes. We can learn and have learned. The day, we trust, will yet come when the members of my race will rejoin in plenty among our crops and cattle. Will the world be patient that the Indian will yet show the world what high rank he can take amidst the standards of Anglo Saxon civilization?


Asa Patterson, a Tuscarora Indian from New York, and the son of Holland Patterson, a former Hampton student, came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute at the age of twenty in September 1897. He had already spent several years in reservation schools and one year in a white public school near his home. Although Asa attended Hampton for only two years, he wrote in later years that he felt his training helped him in securing positions in the steam-fitting and bridge building trades.


Probably many of you in your younger days have read at the public schools the speech of an Indian that of Logan. Or many of you may have heard that speech recited, but really never knew who Logan was.

Logan, a chief of the Cayugas, one of the six nations of the great confederacy of the Iroquois, was the son of an Indian chief and was born in Shamokin, Pennsylvania in 1725.

That it was to this tribe, this noble chief belonged will easily be seen by the eloquence of his speech, and address which no other but an Iroquois could have made at that day.

As a chief he was very friendly and peaceful to everybody he met be he an Indian or a white man. So friendly that he was termed the friend of the white man.

He lived with his family, as friendly and peaceful as young birds in their mother's nest, on the banks of the Ohio. But this long patient peace was at last broken, not by any fault of his, but by that of the white man. In the spring of 1774 his family was cruelly massacred, not sparing even a soul, by a party of white men led by Capt. Cressap.

For this the chief took revenge and stirred up the neighboring tribes to war against the pale faces. During this war which lasted six years many white people were killed. Logan himself is said to have taken thirty scalps.

At last the Indians being defeated they begged for peace, but our friend Logan would not join them for his own peace was broken.

It was at this time that this great chief sent his famous address by an interpreter to Lord Dunmore then governor of Virginia.

He spoke very calmly but full of bravery as he said, "I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry and I gave him not meat; if ever he came cold or naked and I gave him not clothing. During the last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his tent, an advocate for peace, nay such was my love for the white man that those of my country pointed at me as they passed by and said 'Logan is a friend of the white man'. I had ever thought to live with you but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cressap, the last spring in cold blood and unproved, cut off all the relations of Logan, (unprovoked?) not sparing even my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in any human creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully gluttened my vengeance.

For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace, but do not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one."


Isaac Webster entered Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in September 1896 and graduated in 1902. He remained at the school during the 1902-1903 academic year to take the post-graduate Agriculture Course. Webster later worked as an industrial teacher, disciplinarian, interpreter, and farmer. He also became a leader of his tribe in Oneida, Wisconsin. He was an active member of the Brown County Board of Supervisors, as well as a director of the School Board. His outstanding reputation earned him the respect of both Whites and Indians.


Among the employees in the government school at Oneida Reservation, Wisconsin, Hampton is well represented by some of the returned students who are doing an excellent work.

Richard Powless, one of the early graduates, is now the chief engineer there. George Haus, soon after graduating here, was appointed as a teacher, and later was put in charge of the school farm. Today he is holding the same position.

Lavinia Cornelius after graduating decided to become a nurse, and so she took a special course at the New Haven School of Nursing where she graduated with the honors of the class after a hard and steady study for three years. She then went home and took charge of the Oneida Episcopal Hospital. She did so well there that the government gave her a position at the school last year, and there she is also making good record.

There are others who did not complete their course while here, but are holding positions as assistants in the laundry and sewing departments, and Hampton is not ashamed to own them as her ex-students.


Abel came to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute from his home in Cherokee, North Carolina, in November 1896. Abel remained at the school until his death on May 25, 1901.


. . . Indian missions today are in the bright dawn of better things after many years of faithful toil by the pioneer missionaries. Some would judge the Indian by an imperfect white man's standard and consequently pass a general condemnation on the work of all regenerating agencies. The white man is far from desirable standards today, even after a lapse of centuries since savagery, and yet some would expect the Indian to meet his standards of civilization in three decades.

The missionary to a greater or less degree has the Indian's viewpoint, and consequently his comparisons breed optimism concerning the redman's progress and future.

The most influential man who brought the good news into the land of my fathers was Father Marquette. His teachings are still told about in the evenings.

One winter's night my grandmother gathered us around her and told us this story about her great-grandmother's trip with the black robes.

"One spring, a messenger from Sault Ste. Marie came to us, and he wanted someone who could endure the hardships of travel, danger, and other obstacles. Many would not listen to him. So I undertook the trail and after kissing my children I turned my feet toward the rising sun. We arrived at the western shores of Sault Ste. Marie safely. Then came soon the time when we had to leave. The Indians rejoiced on this bright morning, and many were baptized before we started. We spent many days on the Fox River. While going along many Indians came up to meet us. These were the Illinois Indians. They took us in their wigwams and treated us most cordially. Father Marquette spoke to them and they were so impressed by his great influence that they invited him to come back the next year. He baptized many and promised to return to them. Many families traveled five days with us so that nothing would happen to us while in their country. We arrived home in the noon of falling leaves (which is October). For my regard he gave me a lost piece of cross wood which is placed in a silver dish. It is about fourteen inches high and six inches in diameter."

In our church is kept the reward she received from F. Marquette. It is a piece of the holy cross on which Christ was nailed, placed in a silver dish. The dish is about 14 inches high. When my great grandmother died she gave it to the church. Other things she got are held in the family.

The people around home are greatly improved in their customs. Not a single family resides in a wigwam; but all have some kind of house in which they stay. May the day soon come when the eastern public mind shall know of the false tales told.

Some have big farms and have as many as 2 to 15 men working for them. They are acknowledging that idleness on the farm means Weeds for the garden, and labor is healthy. May the day soon come when the people of this great republic shall know of the false tales rendered on my race.

Many folks think the Indian has no jokes, therefore he has no sense of humor. But when they are translated into English the joke is lost. One of these stories which causes laughter among the Indians is about an Indian who could not speak English save three words which are Hello, No, Yes.

One day as he was going into a village he met a white man. It happened that this man was losing watermelons from his garden. On meeting each other the Indian said, "Hello." The white man looked at him and said, "Are you the man who has been stealing my melons?" The Indian quickly answered, "Yes." He saw that the fellow got angry so he thought he would say "No" next time. "Are you going away and leave my melons alone now?" The Indian replied, "No." This when told in Indian is quite funny.

Aleut [or Beaver]
1915-1917; 1919-1922

Thomas arrived at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in May 1915. He was an Aleut native from Anvik, Alaska. Thomas interupted his education when he enlisted in the Army during World War I. He returned to Hampton a second time after the war. Thomas pursued a teaching career. Reed also assisted E. Sapir, Director of the Anthropological Division of the Victoria Memorial Museum, with his research regarding the Atabascan language stock.

Indian Day 1916

The part of Alaska that I came from is down on the lower part of the Yukon River which is about 400 miles up the river from its mouth and about 125 miles inland from the sea coast. The snow is on the ground about three fourths of the year. The streams and rivers are bound in ice about the same length of time. Leaving from about 2-3 months of summer during which time quite a variety of garden truck can be raised without much trouble.

The Indians in that part of the country are a very timid and backward sort of people. They still believe and stick to the old customs and ways of living! Although they have moved now from their underground huts to the log cabins which they called "White Man's House". These houses are about 18 x 20', one room and having one or more windows. Some times three or four families live in the same cabin and all have their own part of the house. In many of the houses, the floor serves as a table and chairs at meal time and as a bedstead at night.

They have all kinds of superstitious beliefs. They believe that every thing has a spirit and that they (the spirits) must be respected or else bad luck would come on them. For instance, they must not throw away their old clothing nor can they be burned, for that would be the same as throwing away part of themselves. They must make a bundle of these old clothing and put it on the branches of a large spruce tree outside of the village. All fish bones are carefully put away in a basket to be taken out to the middle of a river, stream or lake and therepoured over board. This is done so that not a single bone will go to waste on land, for every bone after it has been put into the water will turn back to a fish and this they do to keep the waters full of fish which is one of the main foods.

When a child is born, the father has to put away all tools that are made of iron or steel and is not allowed to use them for twenty days. During the twenty days he is not allowed to go outside to do any work or any kind of hunting. For should he any of the things already said it would surely cause the death of the baby.

When a child dies, it is not buried but is wrapped up in a bundle and placed at the foot of a spruce sapling. If the tree dies within a year, the spirit of the child dies also.

When a grown person dies, the body is kept at least three days in the room in which it died. The body may be kept any number of days past the three days, but it is not necessary as the spirits have left it when the 3 days were up. One of the greatest feasts takes place when a person dies. The feast takes place soon after the death and is kept up as long as the body is unburied. All the foods that the person liked before he died are placed in front of him to eat. Every one in the room must sing or dance around the body. This is done to please the spirits of the dead or else the whole village would be haunted with evil spirits. When the body is buried it must be buried on a hillside or on a high bank facing the river. This is done so that the spirit of the dead one won't have far to go for fish and can watch over those that pass up and down the river. The spirits of the dead go to the happy hunting grounds but they come back in the summer to fish.

I could tell more of these superstitious beliefs, but I am afraid the great crow would get mad at me and cause my death. The great crow is the father of them all.


Edward, an Oneida Indian from Wisconsin, entered Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in September 1900. He decided to remain at the school following his graduation in 1903 to take the post-graduate Agriculture Course. Edward worked as an industrial teacher and farmer after returning home to Oneida, Wisconsin. He was elected Justice of the Peace and Town Assessor for Oneida. Edward Skenandore died on January 6, 1953.

Indian Day
February 8, l904
The Meaning of Dawes' Bill to the Indian

Teachers and fellow students,

Today we celebrate again the signing of the Dawes' Bill which gave the Indians the right to land severalty and to United States citizenship. This day is not yet known or understood by all the Indians, as it is not celebrated as heartily as it will be in the future. Those of us who can understand some of the advantages which are given to us in the bill come with songs of rejoicing in our hearts.

We rejoice that the door is open to us that we may make citizens out of ourselves. A short time ago we were shut up in idleness and laziness within the walls of our reservations. Today we are free to go out into the world and work for our brethren and ourselves in the uplifting of the human race like men of any other race. Our brother the black man, although sometimes he is not treated as he ought to be, rejoices to celebrate the day in which he was set free from slavery, and from the life of ignorance.

The Dawes' Bill gives us the right and opportunity to reclaim ourselves from an obscure life of barbarism, and to climb the ladder of civilization. We rejoice that at last we are emerging from unknown ages of darkness on this continent, and are beginning to cooperate in the work which God has intended for all men to do.

The cloud which once shadowed our atmosphere is now cleaning away, and every day the skies are growing brighter. We hope the day is not far distant when we shall have demonstrated to the people of the United States that we have become self-supporting citizens, and capable of commanding the esteem of our fellow men.

Here at Hampton we are taught to live pure and true men and women. If we live according to what is lovely, pure and true, which is being pointed out to us, we will live happy and our souls will be saved. Therefore we must be careful how we act, be quick to hear, be quick to obey and be honest. There is one verse in the Bible which the Great Spirit from above has said, "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." My young friends, always remember these words and try to live better each day. If you do this God is always ready to help you and by your faithfulness He will make good Christian men and women out of you.

It was through the Dawes' Bill that education was opened to the Indian, that we might become useful men and women and citizens of the United States. And that's what Hampton stands for, to make men and women out of its students.

Since the schools have been opened to us we must drop our old Indian customs, for we cannot expect to use them and make good living nor be happy in them. Before the Indian became civilized he had many foolish customs; such as when a man got married and placed in the family, he had no right to call his father-in-law or mother-in-law by name. If he broke this law, his ears were to be pulled. For instance, if Major Moton was your father-in-law, you have no right to say, "where is Major Moton?", but would have to say, "where is my father-in-law?" Here is another foolish custom. If you should go to an Indian women and ask her, what is her name, she will not tell you, but will point at her husband, if in sight, and tell you to ask him. Now we have had some education and can see a little better and realize that some of our Indian customs are out of date. We cannot get along with the civilized people and live happy if we follow our old customs.

There is a great responsibility resting upon those of us who are now in school. We have much to do in leading our people out of darkness up to what we have been taught. The old men of our people say they were blind and deaf; let us have our eyes and ears open for them. Let us listen to the friends who have given us so much of their time to start us in the right path. If we are going to do the great work which is before us, we shall have to commence now. Let us follow the teachings of those who are working so faithfully and earnestly for our good.

Let us show by obeying the rules of this school while here, that we mean to do what is right. If we can not obey rules here, we shall not be able to walk under the laws of the new life which we are trying to enter.

1890-1898; 1901-1902

Matthew arrived at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in August 1890. He was a Sioux Indian from Standing Rock Agency in North Dakota. Matthew entered the Kimbal Union Academy in Meriden, New Hampshire, following his graduation from Hampton in 1898. He returned to Hampton Institute a second time in 1901 to enter the post-graduate Business Course.

Matthew found work as a clerk and general laborer until World War I erupted. Matthew suffered severe injuries in battle and never fully recovered. He died on March 2, 1930. Matthew's remains are buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

(Written by teacher from student's report?)

You all know something about my tribe, the Sioux. You know it is still one of the largest in the country. It has always been one of the most war like and made a great deal of trouble. This is because the people have a strong will and don't like to give up. They have always loved their country and been willing to fight for it and to die for it too.

The Sioux used to occupy almost the whole of the Mississippi Valley, but about 30 years ago they were moved across the Missouri river into the two Dakotas.

At one time the Govt. wanted to get the Black Hills on account of the gold that was found there but we Indians wanted to keep it, not because we wanted the gold but on account of our homes and our religion. The old Indians used to take these hills as a place of worship. My grandmother was to tell me many things about it, how they used to worship there and make offerings to the Great Spirit.

The Sioux have gone through many hard struggles with the Govt., but now even the old men are wise enough to look toward education for their young people and are glad to have them come away to school.

The schools and the missions have done a great work among my tribe but what they need most just now is more educated Indians to show them by their own lives what it is to be a true Christian and civilized man.

You can see from what I have told you that the Sioux have a strong will and when they believe a thing they are willing to fight for it.

Some of them now are beginning to see that civilization is the best thing for them, and they are willing to fight now on that side, but not all. We educated Indians have got to show them the better way by our own example and when they are convinced then they will work with us for Education and Christianity that we need.

A great many students have gone out from Hampton and other schools and they have lived and behaved so well that the young Indians on the reservations have wanted to be like them and the parents have been willing to let them go away to school. Thus little by little we educated boys and girls can change the spirit and the lives of our own people and in a few years we shall have the reward of seeing our Indian race reaching out its hands for a better and truer ideal of manhood.


William, or Ukahpitty, arrived at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in September 1913. He graduated from the school in 1918 and attempted to enlist in the armed services, but was rejected on the grounds of poor health. William returned to Hampton Institute and worked as an assistant curator in the school's museum. He left Hampton to attend the Kansas State Agricultural College in Manhattan, Kansas.

Indian Day 1918
The Indian of the Southwest

When first seen by the white man the Indian of the Southwest inhabited a vast stretch of country, where both desert and plain were to be seen. Here in the land of the setting sun and under its shadow the Indian has lived for many years and here we find some of the famous tribes who have spread terror among the white people; the Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Kiowas. the Navahoes, Pimas, and the Choctaw. They roamed the country at their own will living peacefully defending themselves only in the case of necessity, when attacked by other tribes. It Was not until the coming of the white man, that the Indian realized that he had to fight for his existence.

History shows us that most of the Southwestern Indians during the settlement of the southwest took up arms against the white man . We find that some of the tribes did not fight the white man. These not only remained friendly to him, but helped the white man to fight the other tribes. During the campaign against Geronimo and his band Oliver Eaton, a full-blood Mohave, acted as Scout for the United States' troops. It was due to his skill in following a very blind trail that the last of the famous band was taken. This is but one of many which showed the friendship of the Indian to the white man.

Looking back we wonder why the Indian fought against the white man. The Indian fought for the protection of his home and country. He considered it as his country and as his duty he endeavored to drive the white man back from whence he came. Here we see the loyalty and patriotism of the Indian to his country by responding to the what he knew was his duty. Though the Indian was called a savage, he showed the truer instincts of his manhood by standing for [what] he thought was right. He did not more than what other races have done in the past. Was he to stand by and let himself be driven back without making a struggle for his rights? We know the answer in the many battles fought between him and his enemy, the many lives that were lost on each [side] and of how the Indian died that the loves of his might still live there.

For many years the war raged between the Indian and the white man. The Indian fought for his country and his rights, the white man for his lust of conquest and for the submission of a race that stood in his progress. but at last the Indian was conquered and he was subject to live on reservations set apart for the Indians. Here they have lived ever since.

But years have rolled by and time has changed all. Today we find the southwestern Indian different from those of his forefathers in many ways. His manner of living has changed, he is self-supporting either by farming or by some trade he has learned while at school. He is industrious, studious and eager to learn the ways of his white brother against whom he fought for many years. We find a great many of them going to school, and getting an education preparing themselves to be useful citizens of this country of ours.

Today, when this beloved country of ours is at war it is our duty as citizens to do our little bit, whether at the firing line or at home. We find the Indian doing his little bit for his country by buying Liberty Bonds. When the first Liberty Bond Loan was launched we find the Indian investing his money in these bonds not merely for increasing his money but for the sake for his country that she might carry on the war on to successful end and that this country of ours may still liberty and peace. Also we see him as members of the Red Cross. One hundred and eleven full-blood Apache Indians belonging to walked into an auxiliary of the Globe chapter of the American Red Cross on the Indian reservation handed $222 in bills over to the secretary. "What is this for?" asked the secretary." "We want to join the Red Cross," said Arthur Johns, their spokesman and Carlisle alumnus whose Indian name is Flying Fox. "We are the first contingent, two hundred more will be in during the week." They asked for the largest Red Cross buttons available bought Red Cross Roses each and proudly departed.

When today the question of loyalty and patriotism comes up in regard to the different races of this continent we find the Indian among the forefront ready to give his life up for his country and flag, the only flag under which he was born and for that flag my friend he will give life willingly and faithfully. When the call came for volunteers the Indian responded with a will ready to do what his country would bid him [to] do. He fights beside his white brother for a great cause, the cause of democracy, a cause for which we should all stand up for. We all are fighting for that the world may enjoy liberty and peace and that Democracy may reign over the whole world and that the accursed German Militarism may be crushed. (* Note on document reads "very much cut before used.")

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